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Whereas these cells— which Metchnikoff called ‘macrophages’—are always present and ready to act, adaptive immunity requires time to develop but is highly specific.
Activation of Toll-like receptors triggers the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and the expression of co-stimulatory molecules Although Jenner’s bold experiment was successful, it took almost two centuries for smallpox vaccination to become universal.The genes that have been associated with the development of systemic lupus erythematosus provide important clues to the etiology of the disease
Kenneth Murphy is the Eugene Opie First Centennial Professor of Pathology and Immunology at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. He received his MD/PhD degree from The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences.Cytokines signal lymphocytes by binding to cytokine receptors and triggering Janus kinases to phosphorylate and activate STAT proteins
Positive selection coordinates the expression of CD4 or CD8 with the specificity of the T-cell receptor and the potential effector functions of the cellThe peripheral lymphoid organs are specialized to trap antigen, to allow the initiation of adaptive immune responses, and to provide signals that sustain recirculating lymphocytes